Eskimo Nebula from Hubble and Chandra

NGC 2392 from the ground might resemble a person's head surrounded by a parka hood.  

Hubble Space Telescope imaged the Eskimo Nebula in visible light in 2000.

The nebula was imaged in X-rays by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in 2007.

Image: NASA
Earth designation — NGC 2392 Eskimo Nebula — from the ground might resemble a person's head surrounded by a parka hood
Hubble Space Telescope imaged Eskimo Nebula in visible light in 2000
The nebula was imaged in X-rays by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in 2007
Space
Image from Spitzer Space Telescope.

Spitzer image transforms a dark cloud into a silky translucent veil, revealing the stellar winds from an otherwise hidden
newborn star called HH46-IR. 

Spitzer's remarkable capacity to peer through cosmic dust has allowed it to unveil this never-before-seen star.

title=
Image from Spitzer Space Telescope.
Spitzer image transforms a dark cloud into a silky translucent veil, revealing the stellar winds from an otherwise hidden newborn star called HH46-IR.
Spitzer's remarkable capacity to peer through cosmic dust has allowed it to unveil this never-before-seen star.
Best viewed in full screen.
 
I feel so much better for telling this
Testimony about extraterrestrials and UFO's after an invasion threat from President Dwight Eisenhower, he and his CIA superior at the CIA were allowed inside the secretive Area 51 in Nevada.

Ex-CIA man facing impending kidney failure who observed live extraterrestrials captured by the US.

Image: RT.com/AFP/John Macdougall
Richard Dolan interviews ex-CIA man facing possible impending kidney failure who observed live extraterrestrials captured by the US
Columns of cool interstellar hydrogen gas and dust in M16, the Eagle Nebula, a nearby star-forming region 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Serpens.

These eerie, dark pillar-like structures are actually columns of cool interstellar hydrogen gas and dust that are also incubators for new stars.  

Dense clouds of molecular hydrogen gas (two atoms of hydrogen in each molecule) and dust that have survived longer than their surroundings in the face of a flood of ultraviolet light from hot, massive newborn stars (off the top edge of the
picture).    This process is called photoevaporation.  

This ultraviolet light is also responsible for illuminating the convoluted surfaces of the columns and the ghostly streamers of gas boiling away from their surfaces, producing the dramatic visual effects that highlight the three-dimensional nature of the clouds. 

The tallest pillar (left) is about a light-year long from base to tip.

As the pillars themselves are slowly eroded away by the ultraviolet light, small globules of even denser gas buried within the pillars are uncovered.    These globules have been dubbed 'EGGs.'    EGGs is an acronym for 'Evaporating Gaseous Globules,' but it is also a word that describes what these objects are.    Forming inside at least some of the EGGs are embryonic stars - stars that abruptly stop growing when the EGGs are uncovered and they are separated from the larger reservoir of gas from which they were drawing mass.    Eventually, the stars themselves emerge from the EGGs as the EGGs themselves succumb to photoevaporation.

Picture: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

Columns of cool interstellar hydrogen gas and dust in M16, the Eagle Nebula, a nearby star-forming region 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Serpens.
These eerie, dark pillar-like structures are actually columns of cool interstellar hydrogen gas and dust that are also incubators for new stars.
Dense clouds of molecular hydrogen gas (two atoms of hydrogen in each molecule) and dust that have survived longer than their surroundings in the face of a flood of ultraviolet light from hot, massive newborn stars (off the top edge of the picture).   This process is called photoevaporation.
This ultraviolet light is also responsible for illuminating the convoluted surfaces of the columns and the ghostly streamers of gas boiling away from their surfaces, producing the dramatic visual effects that highlight the three-dimensional nature of the clouds.
The tallest pillar (left) is about a light-year long from base to tip.
As the pillars themselves are slowly eroded away by the ultraviolet light, small globules of even denser gas buried within the pillars are uncovered.   These globules have been dubbed 'EGGs.'   EGGs is an acronym for 'Evaporating Gaseous Globules,' but it is also a word that describes what these objects are.   Forming inside at least some of the EGGs are embryonic stars — stars that abruptly stop growing when the EGGs are uncovered and they are separated from the larger reservoir of gas from which they were drawing mass.   Eventually, the stars themselves emerge from the EGGs as the EGGs themselves succumb to photoevaporation.
The picture was taken on April 1, 1995 with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.   The color image is constructed from three separate images taken in the light of emission from different types of atoms.   Red shows emission from singly-ionized sulfur atoms.   Green shows emission from hydrogen.   Blue shows light emitted by doubly-ionized oxygen atoms.
Picture: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA
Charles Hall The Tall Whites ET Extraterrestrial experiences in the Nevada Desert - Area 53.

Image: RT.com/
Extraterrestrial experiences in the Nevada Desert — Area 53
Charles Hall speaking on The Tall Whites and Extraterrestrial ET experiences in the desert in Nevada - Area 53.

Image: RT.com/
The Tall Whites were, as I described in book 1, when using their electronic equipment, perfectly capable of putting images in your mind if you were relaxed and calm.
Once you panicked then all bets were off.
The Tall Whites when you went on board their scoutcraft there weren't any screens.
There weren't any television screens, there weren't any computer screens.
Their eyes are like those of a cat.
When we look at a television set we see the moving pictures.
I don't believe that they see the moving picture because their vision is so good.
I believe that instead their communication equipment just puts images directly in their mind.
Does it mind to mind.
If they showed up without their communication equipment, and if none of their people had learnt to speak English, which sometimes happened, especially in a number of episodes that I have published, you were simply down to hand signals.
They weren't telepathic.
If they didn't have their equipment, you were down to pointing and gestures.
Charles Hall — Paradigm Research Group Conference
Light And Shadow In The Carina Nebula

Previously unseen details of a mysterious, complex structure within the Carina Nebula (NGC 3372) are revealed by this image of the 'Keyhole Nebula.'

Obtained with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, the picture is a montage assembled from four different April 1999 telescope
pointings with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, which used six different color filters. 

The picture is dominated by a large, approximately circular feature, which is part of the Keyhole Nebula, named in the 19th century by Sir John Herschel.    This region, about 8000 light-years from Earth, is located adjacent to the famous explosive variable star Eta Carinae, which lies just outside the field of view toward the upper right.    The Carina Nebula also contains several other stars that are among the hottest and most massive known, each about 10 times as hot, and 100 times as massive, as our Sun.

These data were collected by the Hubble Heritage Team and Nolan R. Walborn (STScI), Rodolfo H. Barba' (La Plata Observatory, Argentina), and Adeline Caulet (France).

Image Credit: NASA, The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI)

Light And Shadow In The Carina Nebula
Previously unseen details of a mysterious, complex structure within the Carina Nebula (NGC 3372) are revealed by this image of the 'Keyhole Nebula.'
Obtained with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, the picture is a montage assembled from four different April 1999 telescope pointings with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, which used six different color filters.
The picture is dominated by a large, approximately circular feature, which is part of the Keyhole Nebula, named in the 19th century by Sir John Herschel.    This region, about 8000 light-years from Earth, is located adjacent to the famous explosive variable star Eta Carinae, which lies just outside the field of view toward the upper right.    The Carina Nebula also contains several other stars that are among the hottest and most massive known, each about 10 times as hot, and 100 times as massive, as our Sun.
The circular Keyhole structure contains both bright filaments of hot, fluorescing gas, and dark silhouetted clouds of cold molecules and dust, all of which are in rapid, chaotic motion.    The high resolution of the Hubble images reveals the relative three-dimensional locations of many of these features, as well as showing numerous small dark globules that may be in the process of collapsing to form new stars.
Two striking large, sharp-edged dust clouds are located near the bottom center and upper left edges of the image.    The former is immersed within the ring and the latter is just outside the ring.    The pronounced pillars and knobs of the upper left cloud appear to point toward a luminous, massive star located just outside the field further toward the upper left, which may be responsible for illuminating and sculpting them by means of its high-energy radiation and stellar wind of high-velocity ejected material.    These large dark clouds may eventually evaporate, or if there are sufficiently dense condensations within them, give birth to small star clusters.
The Carina Nebula, with an overall diameter of more than 200 light-years, is one of the outstanding features of the Southern-Hemisphere portion of the Milky Way.    The diameter of the Keyhole ring structure shown here is about 7 light-years.
These data were collected by the Hubble Heritage Team and Nolan R. Walborn (STScI), Rodolfo H. Barba' (La Plata Observatory, Argentina), and Adeline Caulet (France).
Image Credit: NASA, The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI)
MyCn18, a young planetary nebula located about 8,000 light-years away.  

This Hubble image reveals the true shape of MyCn18 to be an hourglass with an intricate pattern of 'etchings' in its walls.     This picture has been composed from three separate images taken in the light of ionized nitrogen (represented by red), hydrogen (green), and doubly-ionized oxygen (blue).     The results are of great interest because they shed new light on the poorly understood ejection of stellar matter which accompanies the slow death of Sun-like stars.    In previous ground-based
images, MyCn18 appears to be a pair of large outer rings with a smaller central one, but the fine details cannot be seen.

According to one theory for the formation of planetary nebulae, the hourglass shape is produced by the expansion of a fast stellar wind within a slowly expanding cloud which is more dense near its equator than near its poles.     What appears as a bright elliptical ring in the center, and at first sight might be mistaken for an equatorially dense
region, is seen on closer inspection to be a potato shaped structure with a symmetry axis dramatically different from that of the larger hourglass.     The hot star which has been thought to eject and illuminate the nebula, and therefore expected to lie at its center of symmetry, is clearly off center.     Hence MyCn18, as revealed by Hubble, does not fulfill some crucial theoretical expectations.

Picture: Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger (JPL), the WFPC2 science team, and NASA

MyCn18, a young planetary nebula located about 8,000 light-years away.
This Hubble image reveals the true shape of MyCn18 to be an hourglass with an intricate pattern of 'etchings' in its walls.    This picture has been composed from three separate images taken in the light of ionized nitrogen (represented by red), hydrogen (green), and doubly-ionized oxygen (blue).    The results are of great interest because they shed new light on the poorly understood ejection of stellar matter which accompanies the slow death of Sun-like stars.    In previous ground-based images, MyCn18 appears to be a pair of large outer rings with a smaller central one, but the fine details cannot be seen.
According to one theory for the formation of planetary nebulae, the hourglass shape is produced by the expansion of a fast stellar wind within a slowly expanding cloud which is more dense near its equator than near its poles.    What appears as a bright elliptical ring in the center, and at first sight might be mistaken for an equatorially dense region, is seen on closer inspection to be a potato shaped structure with a symmetry axis dramatically different from that of the larger hourglass.    The hot star which has been thought to eject and illuminate the nebula, and therefore expected to lie at its center of symmetry, is clearly off center.    Hence MyCn18, as revealed by Hubble, does not fulfill some crucial theoretical expectations.
Hubble has also revealed other features in MyCn18 which are completely new and unexpected.    For example, there is a pair of intersecting elliptical rings in the central region which appear to be the rims of a smaller hourglass.    There are the intricate patterns of the etchings on the hourglass walls.    The arc-like etchings could be the remnants of discrete shells ejected from the star when it was younger (e.g. as seen in the Egg Nebula), flow instabilities, or could result from the action of a narrow beam of matter impinging on the hourglass walls.    An unseen companion star and accompanying gravitational effects may well be necessary in order to explain the structure of MyCn18.
Background: Planetary Nebulae
When Sun-like stars get old, they become cooler and redder, increasing their sizes and energy output tremendously: they are called red giants.    Most of the carbon (the basis of life) and particulate matter (crucial building blocks of solar systems like ours) in the universe is manufactured and dispersed by red giant stars.    When the red giant star has ejected all of its outer layers, the ultraviolet radiation from the exposed hot stellar core makes the surrounding cloud of matter created during the red giant phase glow:  the object becomes a planetary nebula.    A long-standing puzzle is how planetary nebulae acquire their complex shapes and symmetries, since red giants and the gas/dust clouds surrounding them are mostly round.    Hubble's ability to see very fine structural details (usually blurred beyond recognition in ground-based images) enables us to look for clues to this puzzle.
Picture: Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger (JPL), the WFPC2 science team, and NASA
Cometary knots around a dying star.  

Closer view of the 'cometary knots' in the Helix Nebula.   These gigantic, tadpole-shaped objects are probably the result 
of a dying star's last gasps. Dubbed 'cometary knots' because their glowing heads and gossamer tails resemble comets, the 
gaseous objects probably were formed during a star's final stages of life.

Hubble astronomer C. Robert O'Dell and graduate student Kerry P. Handron of Rice University in Houston, Texas discovered 
thousands of these knots with the Hubble Space Telescope while exploring the Helix nebula, the closest planetary nebula to Earth at 450 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius.

This image was taken in August, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.   The red light depicts nitrogen emission 
([NII] 6584A); green, hydrogen (H-alpha, 6563A); and blue, oxygen (5007A).

Picture: Robert O'Dell, Kerry P. Handron (Rice University, Houston, Texas) and NASA

Cometary knots around a dying star.
Closer view of the "cometary knots" in the Helix Nebula.   These gigantic, tadpole-shaped objects are probably the result of a dying star's last gasps. Dubbed 'cometary knots' because their glowing heads and gossamer tails resemble comets, the gaseous objects probably were formed during a star's final stages of life.
Hubble astronomer C. Robert O'Dell and graduate student Kerry P. Handron of Rice University in Houston, Texas discovered thousands of these knots with the Hubble Space Telescope while exploring the Helix nebula, the closest planetary nebula to Earth at 450 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius.
Although ground-based telescopes have revealed such objects, astronomers have never seen so many of them.    The most visible knots all lie along the inner edge of the doomed star's ring, trillions of miles away from the star's nucleus. Although these gaseous knots appear small, they're actually huge.    Each gaseous head is at least twice the size of our solar system; each tail stretches for 100 billion miles, about 1,000 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun.
Astronomers theorize that the doomed star spews hot, lower-density gas from its surface, which collides with cooler, higher-density gas that had been ejected 10,000 years before.   The crash fragments the smooth cloud surrounding the star into smaller, denser finger-like droplets, like dripping paint.
This image was taken in August, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.   The red light depicts nitrogen emission ([NII] 6584A); green, hydrogen (H-alpha, 6563A); and blue, oxygen (5007A).
Picture: Robert O'Dell, Kerry P. Handron (Rice University, Houston, Texas) and NASA
'Twisters' in the Lagoon Nebula.  

This image reveals a pair of one-half light-year long interstellar giant twisters - eerie funnels and twisted-rope
structures - in the heart of the Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8) which lies 5,000 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius.

The central hot star, O Herschel 36 (lower right), is the primary source of the ionizing radiation for the brightest region in the nebula, called the Hourglass.    Other hot stars, also present in the nebula, are ionizing the extended optical nebulosity.    The ionizing radiation induces photo-evaporation of the surfaces of the clouds and drives away violent stellar winds tearing into the cool clouds.

The large difference in temperature between the hot surface and cold interior of the clouds, combined with the pressure of starlight, may produce strong horizontal shear to twist the clouds into their tornado-like appearance.    Though the spiral shapes suggest the clouds are 'twisting', future observations will be needed, perhaps with Hubble's next generation instruments, with the spectroscopic capabilities of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) or the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), to actually measure velocities.

Picture: A. Caulet (ST-ECF, ESA) and NASA

'Twisters' in the Lagoon Nebula.
This image reveals a pair of one-half light-year long interstellar giant twisters — eerie funnels and twisted-rope structures — in the heart of the Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8) which lies 5,000 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius.
The central hot star, O Herschel 36 (lower right), is the primary source of the ionizing radiation for the brightest region in the nebula, called the Hourglass.   Other hot stars, also present in the nebula, are ionizing the extended optical nebulosity.    The ionizing radiation induces photo-evaporation of the surfaces of the clouds and drives away violent stellar winds tearing into the cool clouds.
The large difference in temperature between the hot surface and cold interior of the clouds, combined with the pressure of starlight, may produce strong horizontal shear to twist the clouds into their tornado-like appearance.    Though the spiral shapes suggest the clouds are 'twisting', future observations will be needed, perhaps with Hubble's next generation instruments, with the spectroscopic capabilities of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) or the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), to actually measure velocities.
The Lagoon Nebula and nebulae in other galaxies are sites where new stars are being born from dusty molecular clouds.    These regions act as space laboratories for the astronomers to study how stars form and the interactions between the winds from stars and the gas nearby.   By studying the wealth of data revealed by HST, astronomers will understand better how stars form in the nebulae.
These color-coded images are the combination of individual exposures taken in July and September, 1995 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) through three narrow-band filters (red light — ionized sulphur atoms, blue light — double ionized oxygen atoms, green light — ionized hydrogen).
This work is based on public data retrieved from the HST Archive, cosmic-ray cleaned, calibrated and combined by Adeline Caulet (Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility, European Space Agency).
Picture: A. Caulet (ST-ECF, ESA) and NASA
Coincidentally aligned spiral galaxies. (NGC 3314).  

This image shows the unique 'Galactic Silhouettes,' the galaxy pair called NGC 3314.    Through an extraordinary chance alignment, a face-on spiral galaxy lies precisely in front of another larger spiral.   This line-up provides us with the rare chance to visualize dark material within the front galaxy, seen only because it is silhouetted against the object behind it. 

Dust lying in the spiral arms of the foreground galaxy stands out where it absorbs light from the more distant galaxy.   This silhouetting shows us where the interstellar dust clouds are located, and how much light they absorb.   The outer spiral arms of the front galaxy appear to change from bright to dark, as they are projected first against deep space, and then against the bright background of the other galaxy. 

NGC 3314 lies about 140 million light-years from Earth, in the direction of the southern hemisphere constellation Hydra.   The bright blue stars forming a pinwheel shape near the center of the front galaxy have formed recently from interstellar gas and dust. 

In many galaxies, interstellar dust lies only in the same regions as recently formed blue stars.   However, in the foreground galaxy, NGC 3314a, there are numerous additional dark dust lanes that are not associated with any bright young stars. 

A small, red patch near the center of the image is the bright nucleus of the background galaxy, NGC 3314b.   It is reddened for the same reason the setting sun looks red.   When light passes through a volume containing small particles (molecules in the Earth's atmosphere or interstellar dust particles in galaxies), its color becomes redder.

Picture: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

Coincidentally aligned spiral galaxies. (NGC 3314).
This image shows the unique "Galactic Silhouettes," the galaxy pair called NGC 3314.   Through an extraordinary chance alignment, a face-on spiral galaxy lies precisely in front of another larger spiral.   This line-up provides us with the rare chance to visualize dark material within the front galaxy, seen only because it is silhouetted against the object behind it.
Dust lying in the spiral arms of the foreground galaxy stands out where it absorbs light from the more distant galaxy.   This silhouetting shows us where the interstellar dust clouds are located, and how much light they absorb.   The outer spiral arms of the front galaxy appear to change from bright to dark, as they are projected first against deep space, and then against the bright background of the other galaxy.
NGC 3314 lies about 140 million light-years from Earth, in the direction of the southern hemisphere constellation Hydra.   The bright blue stars forming a pinwheel shape near the center of the front galaxy have formed recently from interstellar gas and dust.
In many galaxies, interstellar dust lies only in the same regions as recently formed blue stars.   However, in the foreground galaxy, NGC 3314a, there are numerous additional dark dust lanes that are not associated with any bright young stars.
A small, red patch near the center of the image is the bright nucleus of the background galaxy, NGC 3314b.   It is reddened for the same reason the setting sun looks red.   When light passes through a volume containing small particles (molecules in the Earth's atmosphere or interstellar dust particles in galaxies), its color becomes redder.
The image is from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and its Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2).   The Hubble Heritage color image of NGC 3314 was constructed from archival images taken with WFPC2 in April 1999 by Drs. William Keel and Ray White III (University of Alabama) in blue and infrared light, combined with new images obtained by the Heritage team in March 2000 using blue, green and red filters.
Picture: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
          
Voyager 1 reaches final frontier
Wednesday 25 May 2005, 20:56 Makka Time
 
The spacecraft will explore the solar system's furthest edge
Nasa's Voyager 1 has reached the final frontier of the solar system, having traveled through a turbulent place where electrically charged particles from the Sun crash into thin gas from interstellar space.
Astronomers tracking the little spaceship's 26-year journey from Earth believe Voyager 1 has gone through a region known as termination shock, some 14 billion kilometres from the Sun, and entered an area called the heliosheath.
"Voyager 1 has entered the final lap on its race to the edge of interstellar space," Edwad Stone, Voyager project scientist at the California Institute of Technology, said in a statement released on Tuesday.
Voyager watchers theorised last November that the craft might be reaching this bumpy region of space when the charged solar particles known as the solar wind seemed to slow down from a top speed of 2.4 million kilometres per hour.
Termination shock
This was expected at the area of termination shock, where the solar winds were expected to decelerate as they bump up against gas from the space beyond the solar system.  It is more than twice as distant as Pluto, the furthest planet in the system.
By monitoring the craft's speed and the increase in the force of the solar wind, Voyager scientists now believe the craft has made it through the shock and into the heliosheath.
Predicting the location of the termination shock was hard because the precise conditions in interstellar space are unknown and the termination shock can expand, contract and ripple, depending on changes in the speed and pressure of the solar wind.
“Voyager 1 has entered the final lap on its race to the edge of interstellar space”
Edwad Stone,
Voyager project scientist at the California Institute of Technology
"Voyager's observations over the past few years show the termination shock is far more complicated than anyone thought," said Eric Christian, a scientist with Nasa's Sun-Solar System Connection programme.
Voyager mission
Voyager 1 and its twin spacecraft Voyager 2 were launched in 1977 on a mission to explore the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn.  The pair kept going, however, and the mission was extended.
Voyager 2 went on to explore Uranus and Neptune, the only spacecraft to have visited these outer planets. Both Voyagers are now part of the Voyager Interstellar Mission to explore the outermost edge of the Sun's domain.
Both Voyagers are capable of returning scientific data from a full range of instruments, with adequate electrical power and attitude control propellant to keep operating until 2020.
Wherever they go, the Voyagers each carry a golden phonograph record which bears messages from Earth, including natural sounds of surf, wind, thunder and animals.  There are also musical selections, spoken greetings in 55 languages, along with instructions and equipment on how to play the record.
          Agencies
Spiral galaxies NGC-3627.  

The spiral galaxy NGC 3627 is located about 30 million light years from Earth. This composite image includes X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue), infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red), and optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope (yellow). The inset shows the central region, which contains a bright X-ray source that is likely powered by material falling onto a supermassive black hole.

A search using archival data from previous Chandra observations of a sample of 62 nearby galaxies has shown that 37 of the galaxies, including NGC 3627, contain X-ray sources in their centers. Most of these sources are likely powered by central supermassive black holes. The survey, which also used data from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey, found that seven of the 37 sources are new supermassive black hole candidates.

Confirming previous Chandra results, this study finds the fraction of galaxies found to be hosting supermassive black holes is much higher than found with optical searches. This shows the ability of X-ray observations to find black holes in galaxies where relatively low-level black hole activity has either been hidden by obscuring material or washed out by the bright optical light of the galaxy.

The combined X-ray and infrared data suggest that the nuclear activity in a galaxy is not necessarily related to the amount of star-formation in the galaxy, contrary to some early claims. In contrast, these new results suggest that the mass of the supermassive black hole and the rate at which the black hole accretes matter are both greater for galaxies with greater total masses.

A paper describing these results was published in the April 10, 2011 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. The authors are Catherine Grier and Smita Mathur of The Ohio State University in Columbus, OH; Himel GHosh of CNRS/CEA-Saclay in Guf-sur-Yvette, France and Laura Ferrarese from Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, Canada.

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

Picture: NASA and Spitzer Caltech

Spiral galaxy NGC 3627 is located about 30 million light years from Earth.   This composite image includes X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue), infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red), and optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope (yellow).   The inset shows the central region, which contains a bright X-ray source that is likely powered by material falling onto a supermassive black hole.
A search using archival data from previous Chandra observations of a sample of 62 nearby galaxies has shown that 37 of the galaxies, including NGC 3627, contain X-ray sources in their centers.   Most of these sources are likely powered by central supermassive black holes.   The survey, which also used data from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey, found that seven of the 37 sources are new supermassive black hole candidates.
Confirming previous Chandra results, this study finds the fraction of galaxies found to be hosting supermassive black holes is much higher than found with optical searches.   This shows the ability of X-ray observations to find black holes in galaxies where relatively low-level black hole activity has either been hidden by obscuring material or washed out by the bright optical light of the galaxy.
The combined X-ray and infrared data suggest that the nuclear activity in a galaxy is not necessarily related to the amount of star-formation in the galaxy, contrary to some early claims.   In contrast, these new results suggest that the mass of the supermassive black hole and the rate at which the black hole accretes matter are both greater for galaxies with greater total masses.
A paper describing these results was published in the April 10, 2011 issue of The Astrophysical Journal.   The authors are Catherine Grier and Smita Mathur of The Ohio State University in Columbus, OH; Himel GHosh of CNRS/CEA-Saclay in Guf-sur-Yvette, France and Laura Ferrarese from Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, Canada.
NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington.   The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.
Picture: NASA and Spitzer Caltech
Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive
NSSDC Photo Gallery Nebulae
Spitzer Caltech images
From the video 'Holes in Heaven' — Brooks Agnew, Earth Tornographer
In 1983 I did radio tornography with 30 watts looking for oil in the ground.
I found 26 oil wells over a nine state area.
100 hundred percent of the time was accurate, which is just 30 watts of power beaming straight into solid rock.
HAARP uses a billion watts beamed straight into the ionosphere for experiments.
Picture these strings on the piano as layers of the Earth, each one has its own frequency.
What we used to do is beam radio waves into the ground and it would vibrate any 'strings' that were present in the ground.
We might get a sound back like ___ and we would say, that's natural gas.
We might get a sound back like ____ and we'd say that's crude oil.
We were able to identify each frequency.
We accomplished this with just 30 watts of radio power.
If you do this with a billion watts the vibrations are so violent that the entire piano would shake.
In fact the whole house would shake.
In fact the vibrations could be so severe under ground they could even cause an earthquake.
Download or watch movie on HAARP — Advanced US Military research weapon on behaviour modification
weather change, ionesphere manipulation — click here
Download or watch audio of Dr. Nick Begich talking on HAARP
— The 2006 update to 'Angels Don't Play This HAARP'.
'Angels Still Don't Play This HAARP: Advances In Tesla Technology'.
Planet Earth Weapon by Rosalie Bertell
ozone, HAARP, chemtrails, space war — click here
HAARP/Chemtrails/Alien aircraft/Illuminati involvement
1 hour FreemanTV.com video — click here
(has 30 second lead in with blank screen and silence)
Angels Dont Play This HAARP weather manipulation
1 hour 36 minutes video — click here
(poor quality to watch but well worth listening)
Dr. Nick Begich, his book and his articles can be found here
       http://www.earthpulse.com/      
Article on Chemtrails — unusual cloud formations in the US.
 Kewe ArchivesThe GardenThe PolesKewe.info